- In India, roots are used as a carminative (promotes gas expulsion from the alimentary canal, against intestinal pain or spasms) and as a laxative.
- Roots are considered useful against intermittent fevers and are sometimes chewed to relieve cold symptoms.
- Juice from roots is applied externally as a rubefacient (skin tonic), counterirritant or vesicant (agent to induce blistering).
- Roots are used as an abortifacient, diuretic and a cardiac and circulatory tonic.
- Roots are used to treat epilepsy, nervous debility and hysteria.
- In Senegal and India, roots are pounded and mixed with salt to make a poultice for treating rheumatism and articular pains. In Senegal, this poultice is also used to relieve lower back or kidney pain.
- Roots are used as a purgative.
- In India, Indo-China, Nicaragua and Nigeria, a root poultice is used to treat inflammations, especially swelling of tissues in the foot (pedal edema).
- A decoction of roots is used to cleanse sores and ulcers.
- In India and Indo-China roots are used to treat cases of scurvy.
- Root juice mixed with milk is considered useful against in hiccoughs, asthma, gout, lumbago, rheumatism, enlarged spleen or liver, internal and deep-seated inflammations, and calculous affections. Crushed root mixed with rum has been used as a liniment on rheumatism.
- A snuff made from roots is inhaled to relieve earache and toothache.
- A juice made from a combination of fresh roots, bark and leaves is inserted into the nostrils to arouse a patient from coma or stupor.