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  • In Senegal, root and tree bark are used to treat sores and skin infections.
  • Bark is regarded as useful in treating scurvy.
  • In India, stem and root bark are taken as appetizers and digestives.
  • In Senegal, a decoction of root bark, roots, leaves and flowers is used to treat epilepsy, hysteria, and intestinal spasms.
  • In India, a decoction of the root bark is used as a fermentation to relieve intestinal spasm and is considered useful in calculous affections (mineral buildup/kidney stones).
  • Stem bark is used to cure eye diseases.
  • In India, stem and root bark are believed to be aphrodisiacs and anthelmintic.
  • In India, root bark is said to prevent enlargement of the spleen and formation of tuberculous glands of the neck, to destroy tumors and to heal ulcers.
  • Juice from root bark is put into the ear to relieve earaches and also placed in a toothache cavity as a pain killer.
  • Bark is used as a treatment for delirious patients.
  • In the Philippines it is believed that, roots, chewed and applied to a snakebite, will keep the poison from spreading.
  • Bark is used as a rubefacient and as a vesicant.
  • In India, bark is sometimes mixed with peppercorns and used as an abortifacient (although often with fatal consequences).